Visit to LANL

During October 22-23, 2018, I was able to be part of the affair “Nuclear Proliferation International Historical Project (NPIHP) Visit to the Los Alamos National Laboratory.” Everything was new to me as I had never been in New Mexico as well as tasted unique atmosphere there. Retrospectively, it went very well. I have not only met great friends and colleagues but also been inspired by useful comments and remarks from different scientists I met in the course of the event. I by no means want to brag off, but I might be the first Korean-history researcher who gave a presentation regarding North Korean nuclear history. My sincerest thanks to the Woodrow Wilson Center and the LANL for granting me a chance to make another indelible memory.

NPIHP Visit Photo Fuller Lodge

Only forward.

Accessing NK materials in GARF

0. Before getting started

The State Archive of the Russian Federation (Gosudarstvennyy arkhiv Rossiyskoy Federatsii, or GARF) is one of the key Russian archives where fundamental North Korean materials are held. Whereas the Lenin Library has a variety of primary as well as secondary North Korean publications including newspapers, journals, books and pamphlets, researchers can access diplomatic, governmental and intergovernmental documents such as act (akt), conversation (beseda), correspondent (perepiska), personal letter, plan (plan), protocol (protokol), reference (referentura)  and statement (vedomost’) in GARF. Unless there is going to be an ‘archival revolution’ in North Korea in the nearest future, GARF would be one of the priority venues researchers must visit to find relevant sources.

So far, the National Institute of Korean History have published more than 80 volumes of Historical Materials on North Korea (Pukhan gwan’gye saryojip, for a brief information of this compilation, see pages 12-13 of Suzy Kim’s Everyday Life). The 71st and 72nd volumes (both printed in 2012) respectively contain selected GARF materials which show the cultural cooperation and exchange between North Korea and the Soviet Union for between 1957 and 1959 (71st) and between 1959 and 1961 (72nd). These volumes are very much handy, for they contain not only translated Korean texts but also original Russian documents with a varying degree of resolution. Be that as it may, these do not provide with the origin of each document. For instance, you can see the 1956-57 plan for NK-Soviet cultural cooperation in pages 5-8 (Korean) and 279-282 (Russian) of the 71st volume without the origin. The exact source for the aforementioned plan should be offered as: f. R8009, op. 34, d. 397, ll. 27-31. In this regard, these published materials could have been much more helpful for researchers if the origins had been provided. Still, HMNK is the best working guide for not only North Korean historians but also researchers in general who have interest in history of North Korea.

Now I turn to how to access NK materials in GARF.

 

1. Some basic info

The official web page (Russian)

Address: Bol’shaya Pirogovskya, 17 (Большая Пироговская, 17, 2gis map) and Berezhkovskaya Naberezhnaya, 26 (Бережковская Набережная, 26, 2gis map).

(I have not visited the latter, the reading room 2. Please share me with your knowledge on using NK materials archived there.)

Work hours: Mon and Wed 12:00 – 20:00, Tue and Thu 10:00 – 17:00, Fri 10:00 – 16:00

* Important: you would be required to submit passport (as always) and letter/statement (pis’mo or zayavleniye, either would be okay) in order to get a temporary pass (propusk) from the pass office (byuro propuskov). Handing in passport is by no means difficult, but it is highly recommended to make letter/statement prior to coming to Russia. As far as I know, there is no designated form for the letter/statement.

 

2. Making a pass

Get to Moscow and go to GARF. Don’t forget to bring passport and letter/statement with you.

photo_2018-09-23_16-55-52
On my way to GARF from the Lenin Library, I met “the frock-coated communist.”
photo_2018-09-23_16-56-06
As you can see, there are also RGAE (Economic Archive) and RGADA (Ancient Acts) in this facility.

Once you enter the door, go to the right side. Or the guard will tell you to go to that direction if you let her/him know you want to enter the archive. In the pass office, you will see the small counter as below.

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-10

Say hi (preferably in Russian) to the staff and submit your passport and letter/statement. The staff will take letter/statement, and give you passport and a temporary pass in return like below.

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-17

In addition, you can see the information as below in the pass office.

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-13

When you enter the check point, you will have to submit a temporary pass as well as your passport. Then the guard will take the half (I don’t remember which half it was) of your temporary pass and give your passport and the other half back to you.

It usually takes one working day to receive your regular pass. However, you will have to wait for at least two or three days to get your requested delo. So it would be your next visit to GARF when you retrieve your regular pass.

If the process is done, let’s walk up to the reading room.

 

3. Registering as a reader and requesting delo

When I first visited GARF, I was surprised as well as motivated by enthusiastic researchers vigorously working on their sources.

There are two offices on the right side of the picture: GARF and RGAE. Let’s line up to the GARF office.

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-21

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-32

You have several things to do from now on. First, print your surname on the roster. Or the staff will tell you to do so. Then, present your temporary pass and passport together, saying you are “new” (saying novaya for women and novyy for men is enough) here. Then the staff will tell you that you have to register on the computerized system. Collect your passport from the staff and sit on the desk where you can register yourself to GARF.

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-25

What you have to do is to register yourself. Give proper information on the screen. If you have to type in English, press shift+alt (this is very useful when your typing Russian skill is not high). Once the registration is done, visit the GARF office again with your passport, saying you “wrote” (napisal).

Then the staff will print out the information you gave a moment ago and explain to you some very basic things about using the archive. What is important is to remember a 6-digit password. You can write it down by using cellphone or a sheet of paper. You have to remember and use this number in order to request delo. (Of course, you can always consult the staff with various things including reissuing this number.)

Now let’s request some delo for science.

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-29

It is always great to do preliminary works; in this case, you can find the archival data of the fond you need. Visit the electronic inventory of GARF. You can search fond/opis’/delo by using either the tree-structured system or the search (poisk, underlined) in the middle of screen. If you use the search, you can put some keywords like KNDR (DPRK) or sotrudnichestvo (cooperation). However, this online search system does not provide the contents of each delo. Therefore, you have to open each delo to find out what kinds of documents that delo has inside.

Personally, I jotted down the numbers of fond/opis’/delo for the documents I was going to request. Then I used the search system in GARF. I put the numbers of fond/opis’/delo and saved a lot of time. It is very possible for researchers to use the tree-structured system in GARF as well, but it would take a lot of time.

In the process putting delo of your interest in a basket and requesting them, you will be likely to see some materials are not available in the reading room 1. It means you have to go the reading room 2 (a different location). I had almost no time doing such, and I am not sure if I could see those unavailable (in the reading room 1) delo in the reading room 2. If you finish ordering delo (it’s like shopping in online malls), go to the GARF office. You will tell the staff that you finished ordering, and the staff will let you know when your request is fulfilled. In my case, it took three days.

Congratulations for your success in requesting delo!

If you need to call it a day, visit the GARF office and ask the staff to return your temporary pass. Passport shall be presented (in Russia, passport is one of your closest friends). Then the staff will ask you if you need regular (постоянный) pass. If you want to continue archival works here, you must say yes (da).

When you go out of the archive, you will have to submit your passport as well as temporary pass.  The guard will collect your temporary pass and say goodbye (do svidaniya) to you. See you soon, GARF!

 

4. Working in the archive

Visit the pass office and show your passport. Now is the time to get a regular pass. Ta-da!

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-40

Go up to the reading room 1 and visit the GARF office. Do print your name on the roster again, present your regular pass and collect the requested delo. In the archive, the early researcher takes a good desk or microfilm reader. This is the iron law.

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-36

I have not taken pictures of paper materials and I am not able to tell you the cost of making photocopy (please refer to GARF regulations). A lot of researchers were either writing down or typing on their laptops, and I did just the same.

If your requested documents are provided as a form of microfilm, you can take pictures freely. So let’s hope that you will get as many microfilms as possible.

During my short stay in GARF, I skimmed through some materials from 34 opis’ (Office of External Relations, 1934-1967) of R8009 fond (Ministry of Health of the USSR). These contain interesting details about NK-Soviet technoscientific (with a focus on the medical, given the nature of the fond) cooperation in 1954-55 and 1957-59. Though I have only worked on those for a few hours, I was able to learn new facts and to draw a speculative framework upon where North Korea and the Soviet Union base their medico-technical relations after the Korean War. Truly excited when I saw the 1955 ministry letter to comrade Ioffe, then-the Head of the Sales Department of the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine named after Stalin, to ship the relevant materials to the construction of the city hospital in East Pyongyang by train from Otpor Zabaykal’skoy station to Tongpyongyang station via Man’chzhuriya, AndongSinuiju stations (f. R8009, op. 34, d. 180, l. 92). Fascinating stories abound to be unearthed by historians in the archives…

After finishing working on your delo, you will have to give your basic information (date, surname, purpose of use, range of your use and your signature) on the back sheet of the front page of each delo as well as the roster for your entire requested delo. In order to return them, it means, you will have to give your signature as many times as the number of your requested delo. For instance, I happened to request 5 delo and it made me give info plus signature 6 times (5 delo+the overall roster). In the GARF office, you can return them. While doing so, show your passport, or tell you surname, so that you can retrieve your regular pass.

I am afraid I do not exactly know about storing (ostavit’) requested materials. Yet, I assume that it would be not difficult to have your requested delo stay in the GARF office.

 

5. Well-being

Working for a long time is surely daunting and demanding. Here are two small tips for your future in-facility adventure in GARF.

Before going upstairs to the reading room 1, you will see the door that lead you to the court of GARF. Go there (this time, without presenting pass or what not!) and a different view would appear before your eyes. I have not much wandered in the court and neighboring buildings, but there must be useful places including canteen and cafe, both located in the 6th building (2gis map). For those who smoke, there is also the designated place for you in this court near the 5th or 6th building.

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-45

The canteen was very neat and nice. Although menu seems to change on a daily basis, pasta and buckwheat (grechikha) I had were delicious and sound. The cost was also reasonable, especially compared to the other restaurants in Moscow.

photo_2018-09-23_16-56-49
Tea break with an old friend Kwangyeol (University of Oregon).

The cafe was even nicer. One caveat is that you cannot get iced coffee in this cafe (I confirmed it myself), but the place was very cozy and comfortable. Very much recommended to chill out here.

 

photo_2018-09-23_19-18-28
To GARF. Only love can stand the test of time like the documents.

I hope to visit not only here again, but also other Russian archives such as AVPRF, RGASPI, ARAN and RGANI, hopefully after my general examination in 2020. Until then, only forward!

If you have any concerns, comments, issues and questions, please email me to: dhwoo1234[at]gmail[dot]com

 

* I deeply thank Kwangyeol Ko (University of Oregon) for helping me a lot in adjusting myself to GARF. I gladly look forward to future collaboration with him in the future.

Dearest Comrade Pak!

Глубокоуважаемый тов.Пак!

Очень рада была получить от Вас письмо и узнать, что Вам получен такой ответственный участок работы. Желаю Вам быть отличный Главным судебно-медицинским экспертом и преподавателем судебной медицины. Вот только не поняла, заведуете ли Вы кафедрой судебной медицины или работатет под руководством кого-либо другого?

Диссертацию проф. В.М.Стольянинов пока ещё не возвратил, но обещал сделать это в ближайшие дни / я говoрила с ним сама /.

Преципитирующие сыворотки для видового определения белка и гемагглютинирующие сыворотки анти-М, анти-И, анти-А, анти-В и анти-О для установления групповой и типовой принадлежности крови, а также пригласительные билеты на заседания Московского отделения Всесоюзного научного общества судебных медиков и криминалистов и некоторые книги высылаются Вам одновременно с этим письмом.

В следующий раз, когда Вам понадобятся какие-либо сыворотки для судебно-медицинских исследований, присылайте официальное требование от Министерства здравоохранения Корейской народно-демократсчёской республики или от Пхеняьнского медицинского институте. Требование на сыворотки, с указанием количества каждой из них, нужно направлять по адресу: Москва, Рахмановский переулок, дом но.3, Мин Здрав Союза ССР, Отдел внежных сношений, для Научно-исследовательского институте судебной медицины.

Большое спасибо за поздравление с новым годом.

Все мы Вас помяым и искренне желаем всяческих успехов.

Коллектив сотрудников и Виктор Ильчи шлют Вам сердечный привет.

Крепко жму Вашу руку.

[Письмо зав.отделом судебно-медицинского исследования вещественных доказательств проф. М.А. Бронниковой для Главного судебно-медицинского эхсперта Министерства здравоохранения Корейской Народно-Демократической Республики Пак Дон Сор.]

GARF f.R8009, op. 34, d.130 l.4

 

Korean translation as follows:

경애하는 박동지!

당신으로부터 서한을 받아 무척 반가웠고, 또 그렇게 책임 있는 직책을 맡게 되었다는 걸 알게 되어 더욱 반가웠습니다. 당신이 전문가들 중에서도 최고로 우수한 법의학자는 물론 법의학의 선생님이 되길 바랍니다. 다만 곧바로 이해가 안 되는 점이, 당신이 법의학부서의 부장이 되었다는 것인가요, 아니면 다른 누군가의 밑에서 일을 한다는 것인가요?

베.엠. 스똘랴니노프 교수의 논문은 아직 반납되지 않았지만, 며칠 내로 그렇게 하도록 약속하겠습니다. 제가 직접 그에게 말을 하도록 하지요.

구체적인 단백질 판검을 위한 침전된 유청 및 혈액형/부수적인 혈액형 구축을 위한 항M, 항I, 항A, 항B와 항O 응집 혈청을 전연맹법의학및범죄학협회 모스크바지부 초청장과 몇 권의 책과 함께 이 서한에 동봉합니다.

다음 번에 법의학적 연구를 위해 어떤 혈청이든 필요할 땐,  조선민주주의인민공화국 보건성 또는 평양의학대학 명의로 공식적인 요청을 보내십시오. 유청에 대한 요구사항을, 양이 얼마나 필요한지를 표시하여 다음의 주소로 보내면 됩니다: 모스크바, 라흐마니노프가(街) 3번, 소비에트연맹 보건성, 외무과, 법의학연구소.

새해를 축하해 주어 대단히 감사합니다.

우리 모두는 당신을 기억하며, 하는 일마다 성공하길 신심으로 바랍니다.

우리 동료들과 빅또르 일리치가 따뜻한 인사를 보냅니다.

당신의 손을 굳게 부여잡습니다.

 

[법의학 물증검사부장 교수 엠.아.브로니코바가 조선민주주의인민공화국 보건성 법의학과장 박동설에게 보내는 서한]

1955년 2월 중

Accessing NK materials in the Lenin Library

0. Before getting started

The Russian State Library (Rossiskaya gosudarstvennaya biblioteka), or the Lenin Library, is one of the key institutions where quality North Korean materials are held. Together with South Korean archives/libraries (National Library of Korea, National Institute of Korean History, National Archives of Korea, University of North Korean Studies, Seoul National University Library, etc.) and their US equivalents (NARA II, Asian Division, Library of Congress, University libraries, etc.), the Lenin Library would surely serve NK researchers as well as those interested in NK studies with primary and secondary sources.

So far NIKH has partially acquired NK materials from the Lenin Library and uploaded an online catalogue of the collected sources. This catalouge is recommendable to Korea-based NK researchers. Yet there is no doubt that the NK materials, especially serials, obtained by NIKH are either missing or incomplete. Therefore, it is imperative for scholars to visit the Lenin Library in order to use the complete set of sources.

Now I turn to how to access NK materials in the Lenin Library.
(I have not requested or used micro films in the library. If you have any experience with these sources, please share with me your knowledge on using them.)

 

1. Some fundamental info

The Lenin Library Web Page Russian/English

If you are uncomfortable with Russian, use Yandex Translate to assist in translating the above web page.

Other than micro films, all sorts of NK materials are stored in the Center for Eastern Literature (Tsentr vostochnoi literatury). This center is truly valuable for researchers in that it has not only both South and North Korean materials but also Asian and African language sources (see the picture below).

Address: Moskva, ul. Mokhovaya, d. 6 (Москва, ул. Моховая, д. 6, 2gis map)

Reading room hours: Mon-Sat 09:00-20:00 (As of 03 Aug 2018)

photo_2018-08-04_21-36-26

 

2. Making a reader card

Get to Moscow and go to the Lenin Library.

photo_2018-08-03_19-08-24

Your priority here would be to make a reader card (chitatel’skii bilet). Make sure to bring your passport which contains your visa and go to the entrance no.2 (it’s located between the Dostoevsky statue and the banner with mustached man in the above picture).

photo_2018-08-03_19-08-36

You can see the plaque on the left side of the door which says ‘запись читателей.’ It means you can register yourself as a reader in this building. Go inside without fear.

You will see the check point and a guard gazing at you as you enter the door. The guard will ask you your reason for coming as well as what you intend to do at the library. It is fine to just say you came to register. The guard will explain the process to you. He will probably say something along the lines of the following three-points:

a. Go to the table (on the right side from where you entered) and fill out a registration card (Kartochka registratsii chitatelya RGBin Russian.

b. Get a waiting ticket from the standing machine and enter the section accordingly.

c. Once in the section, present your passport to the staff and write your surname in Russian.

photo_2018-08-03_19-08-56photo_2018-08-03_19-39-26photo_2018-08-03_19-39-30

The staff in the section will probably have a good command of English, so may the force be with you.

Once you present the documents, the staff will take your photo. This photo will be printed on your reader card, which will be effective for next five years. After retrieving your reader card, say thanks to the staffs (including guards) and get out.

photo_2018-08-03_19-08-52

Your Russified name would look charming, hopefully.

 

3. The Center for Eastern Literature (CEL)

CEL is waiting for you. Refer to the following address again.

Address: Moskva, ul. Mokhovaya, d. 6 (Москва, ул. Моховая, д. 6, 2gis map)

photo_2018-08-04_21-36-18

You can go along the street (left side on the picture) and the door appears in just a few minutes. You can also refer to the Google picture taken in 2016.

Again, you will encounter another check point as well as guards. Now is the time to present your invincible reader card. Sometimes you are supposed to store your personal belongings in the gallery. Do it and take only your necessary equipment (cell phone, charger, battery, iPad and what not) with you. Go to the general office (kafedra) on the right side of where you entered.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-45

There are innumerable drawers. They are catalogues. Go in to the first door.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-42

The plaque says that the office deals with orders, issuances, returns and publishing. For the sake of convenience, I call it the general office.

photo_2018-08-04_21-36-34

A friendly staff will be waiting for you. Most of them can speak English to a varying degree. If you can speak Russian, they will help you accordingly as you explain, including the purpose of your visit and materials you are looking for. Remember: A charming first impression and warm greeting are very important. No one spits on a smiling face.

photo_2018-08-04_21-36-29

In the general office, you will fill in the above paper and present it as well as your reader card to the staff. Now you are free to go doing archival works in CEL.

 

4. Requesting materials

Requesting materials is the next step. In order to make requests, you need to know the bibliographic data of the material you are looking for. Then write down that data on a request form (listok chitatel’skogo trebovaniya). It is noted that you can make as many as ten requests (or different materials) at a time.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-06

The information you need to write down on the request form is as follows:

Чит.билет No: Reader card number. Put the number on your reader card. You could use a dash (-) instead of zeros (e.g. 1—123456 instead of 100000123456)

Дата: Date.

Шифры: Call number. You need to provide this number in order to be issued materials. There are some ways to get to know call number: from your colleagues (maybe, me?) or from a web search. Generally, you can get the call number from the cards in catalogue drawers.

Заглавие: Title of the material. Put it in Russian.

Место изд: Place of Publication. In most cases, you will put Пхеньян (Pyongyang), or Москва (Moscow) in this column.

Год изд: Year of Publication. Here is a trick. Let us suppose you are looking for a journal and all of that journals, published in 1945-47, are archived here. Then you could put like 1945-47 to get a whole set of stored journals. Sweeter than honey.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-36

If you do not know the call number, you can search for it from catalouge drawers.

 

 

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The combination (upper left on the above cards) of number and Russian characters is the call number. Ж means J of journal and Г means G of gazette (newspaper).

Once you submit your request form, it takes ten to fifteen minutes for the staff to get you the materials you want to look at. There is one reading room in front of the general office and that is where you should wait. It is totally fine if your try different reading rooms. Or you can bring your materials to the unmanned reading room after receiving your materials.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-12

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-09

Every table has one 220V socket. Free to use. (Vladimir Ilyich once said, “Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country.”)

 

5. Works

Ta-da! NK materials are here.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-16

I am currently working on 1940s-50s journals of science and technology.

There you can find the Korean reading room. The Korean librarian is Ms. Natalia and she speaks Korean very well.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-24

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-48

Having tea time in the Russian archive could be mesmerizing.

 

 

As you can see, the Chinese reading room is huge and well air-conditioned. You can also work here.

 

6. Et cetera

Photocopying is conducted by the staff and costs you some rubles depending on the publishing date, size and overall condition of the material.

1831-1900: 25 RUB per sheet

1901-41: 15 RUB per sheet

1942-present: 7 RUB per sheet

There is a buffet in the basement of the main building. As you enter entrance no.1, go straight and tap your reader card to the reader machine. You will be issued with a slip (this is important because you will need to present it with your reader number as well as surname on it in order to get out of the library) as you repeat the process before the main stairs. Then turn left and follow the mark (столовая/буфет) to the basement level. Personally, I prefer the Lenin Library canteen to the food court in NARA II.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-28

Also, to our surprise, readers can use free wifi in the main buildings. Unfortunately, I did not check out the wifi availability in CEL.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-31

You can put a hold on your working materials. Return the materials to the general office and say you want to hold them. The general office will hold your materials for as long as two weeks unless you show up (the materials are to be returned after fourteen days) and store the materials indefinitely as you put a hold onward.

If you have any concerns, comments, issues and questions, please email me to: dhwoo1234[at]gmail[dot]com

레닌도서관에서 북한자료 열람하기

0. 들어가며

Российская государственная библиотека (러시아 국립도서관, 이하 레닌도서관)는 지구상에서 양질의 북한자료를 가장 많이 소장하고 있는 기관 중 하나이다. 따라서 북한사를 연구하는 연구자나 이에 관심 있는 분들은 한국의 도서관/문서고 (국립중앙도서관, 국사편찬위원회, 국가기록원, 북한대학원대학교, 서울대 중앙도서관 등)와 미국의 도서관/문서고 (NARA II, 미의회도서관 아시아부, 각 대학 도서관 등)에 더불어 필히 방문해야 하는 곳 중 하나이다.

한국의 국사편찬위원회에서 레닌도서관 자료를 일부 수집하여 제공(목록)하고 있으니 러시아를 방문하기 어려운 분들은 이 목록을 참조하고 국내에서 자료를 열람하길 권장한다. 허나 확인 결과, 국내에 수집된 자료 중 이가 빠진 것이 많고, 불완전한 연간물이 많아 결국 레닌도서관을 방문해야 할 것이다. 이하에서는 레닌도서관에서 북한자료를 열람하는 방법에 대해 적는다.

(마이크로 필름 자료의 경우, 필자는 이용해 본 적이 없다. 열람법을 알고 계시다면 공유해 주시길 바란다.)

 

1. 기본 정보 

레닌도서관 홈페이지 노문/영문

노문 구사가 힘들면 얀덱스 번역기를 이용해 노문 웹페이지 주소를 넣어 보시라. 훌륭한 영어로 번역이 되기 때문에 좋은 참조가 될 것이다.

북한자료는 마이크로 필름을 제외하고 전부 Центр восточной литературы (동방문헌중심)에 소장되어 있다. 이곳은 북한자료뿐만 아니라, 19-20세기 원동변강에서 생산된 고려인 관련 자료, 소련에서 생산된 남한 관련 자료, 그밖에 중국/일본/서남아시아(인도, 파키스탄 등)/중앙아시아/아프리카 관련 자료를 소장하고 있기 때문에 아시아학 연구자에게는 자료의 보고 그 이상의 가치를 지닌다. 좌우간 동방문헌중심에 관한 기본 정보는 다음과 같다.

주소: Москва, ул. Моховая, д. 6 (2gis 지도)

열람실 이용 시간: 월-토 09:00-20:00 (2018년 8월 3일 기준)

photo_2018-08-04_21-36-26

 

2. 도서관증 만들기

자, 이제 여러분은 모스크바에 도착했다. 비행기로 왔든 기차로 왔든 그건 중요하지 않다. 레닌도서관으로 향하라.

photo_2018-08-03_19-08-24

레닌도서관에 도착하였다. 도스토예프스키의 동상이 여러분을 반갑게 맞아줄 것이다. 도서관 뒤켠으로 삼성 간판을 더 이상 볼 수 없어서 아주 속이 시원하다. 여기서 동상 뒤편의 1번 문으로 가봤자 아무 소용이 없다. 왜냐하면 도서관증 (читательский билет)을 만들어야 하기 때문이다. 도서관증을 만들기 위해서는 비자가 있는 여권이 필요하다.

여권을 지참했다면, 위 사진에서 오른쪽, 근엄한 수염아저씨가 그려져 있는 현수막의 왼편으로 향하라. 그곳에서 2번 문으로 들어갈 수 있다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-08-36

2번 문 옆에 여러 기능이 적혀있는데 그 중 열람자 등록하기 (запись читателей)가 보일 것이다. 이를 위해 안으로 들어가보자.

안으로 들어가면 검색대가 있고 근엄한 경비 아저씨가 방문객을 고요히 응시할 것이다. 겁먹지 말고 등록하러 왔다고 말하면 친절하게 어떻게 하라고 안내해 준다. 내용인 즉, 입장 방향의 오른쪽 책상에 가서 아래와 같은 레닌도서관 열람자 등록증 (Карточка регистрации читателя РГБ)을 작성한 후, 출입문 근처의 대기표를 뽑은 후에 그 번호에 맞게 책상 오른편 사무실에 들어가 여권과 등록증을 제출하여야 한다는 것이다. 사진을 첨부하지 못해 유감이다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-08-56photo_2018-08-03_19-39-26photo_2018-08-03_19-39-30

위의 사진을 참조하여 모두 노어로 작성하길 바란다. 작성 후 대기표를 뽑고 사무실에 들어가면 외국인 연구자를 많이 상대하여 능숙한 직원들이 있기 때문에 큰 걱정 하지 않아도 무방하다.

들어가서 필요한 문건을 제출하고 기다린다. 그럼 의자에 등이 닿도록 앉으라고 할 것인데, 이는 사진을 찍기 위함이다. 그렇게 찰나의 순간, 앞으로 5년간 유효할 도서관증에 담길 사진이 찍힌다. 등록을 마치고 도서관증을 발급 받아서 밖으로 나오면 된다. 직원과 근엄한 경비 아저씨께 꼭 인사를 하자. 문재인 대통령도 구사한 노어인 “발쇼예 스빠씨-바!“면 충분하다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-08-52

나는 졸지에 부동균이 되었으나 만족하지 않을래야 않을 수 없었다.

 

3. 동방문헌중심

이후 지체 없이 동방문헌중심으로 향하자. 앞서 적었던 주소를 참조하자.

주소: Москва, ул. Моховая, д. 6 (2gis 지도)

photo_2018-08-04_21-36-18

위의 사진에서 왼편의 길을 따라 가다보면 오른편에 문이 있다. 문 사진을 못 찍었다. 2016년에 찍힌 구글 지도를 참조하면 될 것이다. 정확히 저 문이다.

들어가면 역시 검색대가 있고 근엄한 경비 아저씨가 있다. 겁먹지 말자. 아까 발급 받은 도서관증을 보여주면 문제 없다. 헌데 경비 아저씨의 성향에 따라서 갑자기 화를 내며 가방이나 짐을 왼편 보관소에 맡기고 오라는 사람도 있다. 그럴 경우, 왼편 보관소에 가서 짐을 맡기고, 필요한 장비만을 챙겨서 작업에 임하면 된다. 걱정 없다. 그 후 입장 방향의 오른쪽 복도로 들어가자. 만일 경비 아저씨가 친절하다면 여러분을 그곳으로 안내해 줄 것이다. 물론 혼자 가도 상관은 없다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-45

빼곡한 카탈로그 서랍 사이로 활짝 열려있는 문이 보인다. 바로 저곳이다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-42

주문, 발급, 반납, 출판 등을 총괄하는 부서임을 알리는 현판이 붙어있다.

photo_2018-08-04_21-36-34

들어가면 대개의 경우, 엄청나게 친절한 직원이 있다. 노어가 능숙하다면 자신을 소개하면서 무슨 이유로 왔는지, 어떤 자료를 찾는지 등을 언급하면 그에 맞게 척척 도와준다. 물론 나는 그만큼 노어가 능숙하지도 않고, 어떤 자료를 찾을지에 대한 사전 정보가 있었기 때문에 최소한의 인사만을 나눴다.

photo_2018-08-04_21-36-29

위 쪽지에 본인의 도서관증 번호와 성姓을 적어서 도서관증과 함께 내면 된다. 그러면 이제 동방문헌중심에서 작업을 시작할 수 있는 셈이다.

 

4. 자료 청구하기

이제 해야 할 일은 아래와 같은 열람자 요구증 (листок читательского требования)에 열람을 원하는 자료의 서지사항 등을 넣어서 제출하는 일이다. 최대 10점까지 요구할 수 있다. (1점이 1권에 국한될 필요는 없다. 예컨대 어떤 잡지가 1946년도와 47년도 2년분이 있다고 해보자. 그러면 그 잡지를 요구하면서 Год изд에 1946-47이라고 적으면 된다. 그러면 다 가져다 준다. 정말 최고이다.)

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-06

무엇을 적어 넣어야 할 지 모르는 게 인지상정이다. 아래를 참고하라.

Чит.билет No: 여러분의 도서관증에 아로새겨진 번호를 넣으시라. 이때 00000 부분은 작대기 (-)로 퉁칠 수 있다.

Дата: 신청하는 날짜

Шифры: 청구기호 (call number)에 해당한다. 폐가식으로 운영되기 때문에 이 번호를 미리 알고 있어야 한다. 연구자들을 통해서 건네 받을 수도 있고, 아니면 레닌도서관 홈페이지를 통해 검색한 후 확보할 수도 있다. 대개의 경우, 이하에 나올 카탈로그 서랍을 뒤져 본인이 열람을 원하는 자료의 쉬프릐를 넣는다.

Заглавие: 자료 제목. 노어로 넣어야 한다.

Место изд: 발행지. 대개의 경우, 평양 (Пхеньян) 아니면 모스크바 (Москва)이다. 위의 쉬프릐를 참조.

Год изд: 출판년도. 쉬프릐를 확인하는 과정에서 있는 만큼, 원하는 만큼 쓰면 정말 그 만큼 가져다 준다. 레닌도서관 짱짱맨.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-36

카탈로그가 정말 빼곡하다. 여기서 일일이 검색하는 게 상례이나, 미리 청구기호를 알고 가면 큰 도움이 된다. 그러기 위해서는 다른 연구자와의 협업이 필수이다. 시간을 절약할 수 있다.

청구기호를 모를 경우엔 카탈로그에서 조선어 잡지/신문 등을 찾아 보면 된다.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

카탈로그 카드 왼편 상단에 적힌 숫자와 노어 조합이 바로 청구기호이다. 참고하자.

열람자 요구증과 도서관증을 제출하면 직원이 자료를 가져다 줄 때까지 시간이 10-15분 정도 소요된다. 이때 총괄 부서 바로 앞 서남아시아실에서 대기를 타면 좋다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-12

냅다 간지나는 열람실이다. 여기서 정말 자유롭게 자료 관련 작업을 수행할 수 있다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-09

220V 전자제품도 양껏 충전하며 쓸 수 있다. 러시아는 사랑 그 자체임을 다시 한 번 느낀다.

 

5. 작업

15분이 채 지나지 않아 초도 신청한 10점의 자료가 전부 도착하였다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-16

1940-50년대 잡지자료를 대거 요청하여 받아 보았다. 정말 뿌듯한 순간이었다.

이밖에도 한국 열람실이 있고, 이곳의 한국 사서이신 나타샤 선생님께서는 월, 수, 금 출근하신다고 한다. 능숙한 한국어를 구사하시는 고려인이시기 때문에 정말 큰 도움이 된다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-24

이곳의 한국 열람실이 개장된 지는 10년이 넘었다고 한다. 최인훈의 <광장>이 노어로 번역되어 있었고, 1920-40년대 고려인 관련 노어 자료도 제법 있었다. 가운데 왼편으로 보이는 쌓여 있는 무더기 자료는 아직 정리가 안 된 최신 입수자료인데, 주로 원동변강에서 생산된 1920-30년대 고려인 교육관련 자료이고, 1956년 북한에서 생산된 두 권의 비밀자료도 포함되어 있었다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-48

나타샤 선생님께서 불러주셔서 티타임도 가질 수 있었다.

중국 열람실은 크기도 크고 냉방도 잘 되고 사람도 잘 없다. 여기서 작업을 하면 개꿀이다.

 

6. 기타

자료 관련 작업은 정말 체력과의 승부이다. 돈이 많으면 그냥 죄다 복사를 부탁하면 되겠다. 복사는 직원이 친절하게 수작업으로 해주며, 자료의 발행시기와 크기, 상태에 따라 복사비에 약간의 차이가 있지만 대체로는 다음과 같은 비용이 소요된다.

1831-1900: 장당 25루블

1901-41: 15루블

1942-현재: 7루블

현대사 연구자들로서는 개꿀 개리득이다.

좌우간 체력 얘기로 돌아가서, 작업을 종일 하다보면 제아무리 스타하노프에 빙의된 자라 하더라도 시장기가 돌게 마련이다. 2017년 12월, 미의회도서관에서 작업할 때, 밥 먹는 시간도 아까워 아침부터 오후까지 화장실 갈 때를 제외하고 계속 작업을 하여 중국 사서분들께 인정을 받았던 기억이 난다. 사실 밥 먹는 시간이 아까웠다기보다는 식당이 어디 있는지도 몰랐고, 가기가 귀찮았다.

하지만 레닌도서관은 다르다. 식당은 본관 1번 문으로 들어가 직진하다가 계단 오르기 전에 왼쪽으로 꺾어 진행하다 보면 지하 1층에 있음을 확인할 수 있다. 부페식이고, 가격도 싸다. 메릴랜드 NARA II 지하식당과는 차원이 다르다. 적어도 문서고 식당 수준 면에서 러시아는 미국을 앞섰다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-28

본관에서는 아래와 같이 wifi도 가능하다. 동방문헌중심에서는 안 되는 듯 했다.

photo_2018-08-03_19-09-31

하루의 일과를 마치고 열람 중인 자료를 계류 (оставить; hold)할 수 있다. 총괄 부서에 자료를 가지고 가서 계류하고 싶다고 말하면 그렇게 해준다. 열람자가 재방문 하지 않는 경우, 최대 2주간 계류해 주고 (2주를 넘기면 자동 완납), 재방문 할 경우, 계류를 무기한 연기할 수 있다.

직원들이 너무나 친절하고, 가장 기초적인 영어도 구사하기 때문에 이곳에서의 작업은 정말 아무 걱정이 없다. 그렇기 때문에 북한학 연구자라면 사비를 쓰든 연구비를 따내든 그랜트를 받든 어떤 방법을 써서라도 이곳으로 오는 게 중요하다. 내 생애 최고의 8월이 시작되고 있다.

추가적인 질문이나 제언이 있다면 언제든 메일 주시길 바란다. dhwoo1234[at]gmail[dot]com

A bit of glacier

On July 15, 2018, I finally saw a bit of glacier after a good walk along the Hooker Valley Track in the Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park in New Zealand. As I approached the lake it began to snow; tiny hail-like things were dropping onto trekkers including me. I walked less than two hours. The track was surrounded by natural magnificence and total silence. Highly recommended.

Here I share some moments with you. I hope you could also taste this wonder presented by this planet not before long.

 

photo_2018-07-15_20-07-42

photo_2018-07-15_20-07-38

photo_2018-07-15_20-07-22

photo_2018-07-15_20-07-18

photo_2018-07-15_20-07-31

photo_2018-07-15_20-07-01

photo_2018-07-15_20-06-46

photo_2018-07-15_20-06-43

photo_2018-07-15_20-07-12

photo_2018-07-15_20-07-06

photo_2018-07-15_20-06-37
“This looks just like Azae [old uncle in Korean] a little,” my developer brother declares…
photo_2018-07-15_20-00-47
It was very nice to see glacier if a bit of it.
photo_2018-07-15_20-00-55
Leaving glacier behind… only forward!